We examine visions of the future produced in areas that underwent processes of decolonization in the 20th century. Focusing on Africa and Asia, we look at how prospects for societies after decolonization were imagined by those struggling against imperialism. What was envisaged for the younger generations? How would alternative states be made? New kinds of international connections? Communities and relations between races, sexes and classes? Themes include Pan-Africanism, Socialism, nationalism, class, caste, gender, and race. Readings in theory, criticism, literature; political statements and documents of a period of independence movements.